Hofstede’s Value Dimension

Hofstede’s Value Dimension (1985)
In a research that included 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries, Geert Hofstede identified four dimensions of national value systems that influence organizational and employee working relationships.
Dimensions Details
Power Distance
  • High power distance means that people accept inequality in power among institutions, organizations and people
  • Low power distance means that people expect equality in power
  • High power distance: Malaysia, the Philippines and Panama
  • Low power distance: Denmark, Austria and Israel
Uncertainty Avoidance
  • High uncertainty avoidance means that members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity and thus support beliefs that promises certainty and conformity
  • Low uncertainty avoidance means that people have high tolerance for the unstructured, the unclear and the unpredictable
  • High uncertainty avoidance: Greece, Portugal and Uruguay
  • Low uncertainty avoidance: Singapore and Jamaica
Individualism and Collectivism
  • Individualism reflects the value for a loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves
  • Collectivism means a preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals look out after one another and organizations protect their members’ interests
  • Individualist: United States, Canada, Great Britain and Australia
  • Collectivist: Guatemala, Ecuador and China
  • Masculinity stands for the preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, work centrality and material success
  • Femininity reflects the values of relationships, cooperation, group decision making and quality of life
  • Masculine: Japan, Austria, Mexico and Germany
  • Feminine: Sweden, Norway, Denmark and France

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